MAMC Journal of Medical Sciences

SHORT COMMUNICATION
Year
: 2020  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 37--38

Sterile Insect Technique: The Future Strategy to Control Vector Mosquitoes and the Associated Diseases


Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava1, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava2,  
1 Member of the Medical Education Unit and Institute Research Council, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth – Deemed to be University, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth – Deemed to be University, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Professor Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth (SBV) – Deemed to be University, Tiruporur - Guduvancherry Main Road, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District, Tamil Nadu - 603108
India

Abstract

The mosquito vector has been identified to play a vital role in a wide range of infectious diseases, most of which are associated with life threatening complications. For many decades, we have relied upon the employment of insecticides as the first line defense for the control of vector population, nevertheless owing to the reports of emergence of resistance to insecticides from different parts of the world and also due to the harmful impact of insecticides on the environment, the time has come where we look beyond them. The researchers from leading health agencies have advocated for strategies which can control the mosquito population itself and this will in turn minimize the risk of infection immensely. Sterile insect technique has been looked upon as the strategy for the control of vector population through birth control in the future. In conclusion, the approach of the sterile insect technique is a promising approach and has immense potential to ensure a reduction in the incidence of the mosquito vector and simultaneously respond to the problem attributed to insecticides.



How to cite this article:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Sterile Insect Technique: The Future Strategy to Control Vector Mosquitoes and the Associated Diseases.MAMC J Med Sci 2020;6:37-38


How to cite this URL:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Sterile Insect Technique: The Future Strategy to Control Vector Mosquitoes and the Associated Diseases. MAMC J Med Sci [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Feb 27 ];6:37-38
Available from: https://www.mamcjms.in/text.asp?2020/6/1/37/283522


Full Text



 Introduction



The mosquito vector has been identified to play a vital role in a wide range of infectious diseases, most of which are associated with life-threatening complications.[1] The available global estimates suggest that 50% of the global population are at the risk of acquiring dengue infection, which is a public health alarm and a warning for all the health stakeholders.[1],[2] Moreover, in the current era, a lot of changes have been observed which range from unplanned urbanization, an increase in the incidence of travel, climate changes, poor implementation of the vector control strategies, lack of prioritization, etc., which together have accounted for a massive rise in the incidence of mosquito-borne diseases.[1],[2]

Mosquito control measures and the challenges

For many decades, we have relied upon the employment of insecticides as the first line defense for the control of vector population, nevertheless owing to the reports of emergence of resistance to insecticides from different parts of the world and also due to the harmful impact of insecticides on the environment, the time has come where we look beyond them.[2] Further, it is important to acknowledge that despite the implementation of various strategies, we have not been able to control the vector population and it is quite essential to look for alternative strategies to ensure that we can have a strong impact.[2]

Sterile Insect Technique

The researchers from leading health agencies have advocated for strategies which can control the mosquito population itself and this will in turn minimize the risk of infection immensely.[2],[3] Sterile insect technique has been looked upon as the strategy for the control of vector population through birth control in the future. In this method, large number of sterilized male mosquitoes will be reared in earmarked establishments and then subsequently they will be released to mate with female mosquitoes. However, as they won’t be able to produce the next generation of mosquitoes and thus their population will reduce as the time goes by.[2]

The sterilization will be carried out using radiation and the plan is to initially employ the method for Aedes mosquitoes, so that the diseases attributed to them can be reduced.[2],[3] However, it is important to acknowledge that for the sustained benefits, there is a simultaneous need to ensure political commitment, community engagement and assessment of the impact (through a decline in the number of mosquitoes trapped in fly traps) of the strategy.[2],[3]

 Conclusion



In conclusion, the approach of the sterile insect technique is a promising approach and has immense potential to ensure a reduction in the incidence of the mosquito vector and simultaneously respond to the problem attributed to insecticides.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References

1Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS, Ramasamy J. Exploring the geographical burden and responding to the threat of the spread of dengue infection to the unaffected nations. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:481-2.
2World Health Organization. Mosquito sterilization offers new opportunity to control chikungunya, dengue, and Zika; 2019. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/14-11-2019-mosquito-sterilization-offers-new-opportunity-to-control-chikungunya-dengue-and-zika. [Accessed on December 20, 2019].
3Machi RA, Mayne RR, Gava AM, Arthur BP, Arthur V. Gamma radiation sterilization dose of adult males in Asian tiger mosquito pupae. Insects 2019;10:e101.