• Users Online: 135
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

   Table of Contents      
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 6-11

A Comparative Evaluation of Phacotrabeculectomy with Manual Phacofracture Trabeculectomy

Senior Resident, Department of Ophthalmology, Guru Nanak Eye Center, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication27-Jan-2015

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Kirti Singh
Department of Ophthalmology, Guru Nanak Eye Center, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2394-7438.150050

Rights and Permissions

Purpose: To compare the results of manual phacofracture trabeculectomy (manual small incision cataract surgery trabeculectomy) versus phacotrabeculectomy with respect to visual gain and intraocular pressure (IOP) control. Materials and Methods: Thirty consecutive patients who underwent combined surgery performed by the same surgeon were prospectively evaluated for a minimum period of 12 months. Fifteen patients underwent single site phacotrabeculectomy, and the remaining 15 patients underwent single site phacofracture trabeculectomy at Guru Nanak Eye Hospital, New Delhi. Results: Both surgeries resulted in a highly significant decrease in IOP, the final percentage reduction being 46% in phacotrabeculectomy group and 44% in phacofracture trabeculectomy group. The complete success rate (IOP < 21 mmHg) without additional antiglaucoma medications was 100% for both the groups till l2 months of follow-up. Improvement in visual acuity was similar in both the groups with 53% patients in phacotrabeculectomy and 60% in phacofracture trabeculectomy group attaining a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better. The mean surgically induced astigmatism was 1.33 D and 1.3 D in phacotrabeculectomy and phacofracture trabeculectomy group respectively, at the end of 12 months follow-up. Manual phacofracture trabeculectomy resulted in more early postoperative inflammation within the first 7 days. Conclusions: There was no statistically significant difference in the final visual acuity, IOP control and surgically induced astigmatism between phacofracture trabeculectomy and phacotrabeculectomy groups.

Keywords: Trabeculectomy, phacoemulsification, manual phacofracture, small incision cataract surgery

How to cite this article:
Singh K, Mutreja A, Jain P. A Comparative Evaluation of Phacotrabeculectomy with Manual Phacofracture Trabeculectomy. MAMC J Med Sci 2015;1:6-11

How to cite this URL:
Singh K, Mutreja A, Jain P. A Comparative Evaluation of Phacotrabeculectomy with Manual Phacofracture Trabeculectomy. MAMC J Med Sci [serial online] 2015 [cited 2021 Sep 16];1:6-11. Available from: https://www.mamcjms.in/text.asp?2015/1/1/6/150050

  Introduction Top

The simultaneous presence of two ocular pathologies such as glaucoma and cataract often influences the ophthalmologist to use a combined surgical procedure, which simultaneously deals with both the diseases. [1],[2],[3],[4],[5] In glaucoma patients undergoing cataract extraction, concomitant trabeculectomy not only reduces the damaging effects of early postoperative spikes of intraocular pressure (IOP), but also provides a long term control of IOP. [6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21],[22],[23],[24] It thus grants the patient independence from multiple glaucoma drugs and improves patient quality of life. The refinement in manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS) and phacoemulsification has brought new options for combined procedures. Smaller scleral and conjunctival incisions come with the advantage of lesser surgical insult, thereby less subsequent inflammation and wound healing stimuli. Conjunctival fibrosis is consequently reduced, and longevity of the bleb filtration is enhanced. [7],[12],[22],[23],[24],[25],[26],[27],[28] Smaller scleral incisions also reduce postoperative astigmatism thereby enabling early visual rehabilitation. [12],[18],[23],[24],[27],[29],[30],[31],[32] In the present study, we compared the advantages offered by phacoemulsification over manual phacofracture in the combined operation for cataract and glaucoma.

  Materials and Methods Top

A prospective study involving 30 eyes of 30 patients comprising of a cohort of 19 women and 11 men aged 40-85 years, undergoing combined surgery was conducted with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Selection criteria included a visually disabling cataract along with poorly controlled glaucoma on more than two antiglaucoma drugs or very high IOP (>35 mm Hg) at presentation. Patients who had central corneal opacities, congenital/developmental glaucoma, and acute or chronic inflammatory eye disease were excluded from the study. The patients were divided into two groups. The study group underwent phacofracture with trabeculectomy and the control group underwent scleral tunnel phacoemulsification with trabeculectomy. The preoperative best corrected visual acuity, IOP, corneal thickness, keratometry, refraction, anterior chamber depth, axial length, gonioscopy, non-contact corneal endothelial cell counts and visual fields (24-2 humphrey fields) were recorded in both the groups. The mean values were compared with the postsurgical values in both the groups over a 1 year follow-up period. The complete success rate of surgery was defined as IOP < 21 mmHg without additional antiglaucoma medications. For statistical analysis, Student's t-test and paired t-test were performed using  SPSS software version 17 ((SPSS ® , Inc., Chicago, IL, USA), for Windows ® ).

  Results Top

The mean age in phacotrabeculectomy group was 61 ± 9 (range-40-85) years and 56 ± 8 (range-40-85) years in phacofracture trabeculectomy group with no intergroup statistically significant difference. In the phacotrabeculectomy group, 11 (73%) patients were suffering from chronic angle closure glaucoma (CACG), rest 4 (27%) had open angle glaucoma (OAG) whereas in phacofracture group 10 (67%) patients had CACG and 5 (33%) had OAG.

Intraocular pressure control

The preoperative mean IOP in both phacotrabeculectomy and phacofracture trabeculectomy groups was 29 ± 3 mm Hg. The reduction in mean IOP at the end of 3 months was 46% in the phacotrab-eculectomy group and 44% in phacofracture trabeculectomy group. At the 12 months follow-up the percentage reduction was similar to that seen at 3 months. The intergroup difference was not statistically significant at any time. No case developed ocular hypotony (<4 mm Hg) at any time during the follow-up period. The complete success rate (IOP < 21 mm Hg) without additional antiglaucoma medications was 100% in both the groups at the interim follow-up of 3 months and at the last follow-up of 12 months. [Table 1] shows IOP levels at the specifi ed follow-up periods.
Table 1: Mean IOP over the follow-up period

Click here to view

The percentage reduction in mean postoperative IOP from the preoperative values with time is detailed in the [Table 2] and [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Comparison of percentage reduction in mean intraocular pressure

Click here to view
Table 2: Percentage reduction in mean IOP

Click here to view

In the phacotrabeculectomy group, most of the patients had flat or absent bleb (Grade 1) except two patients who had elevated engorged conjunctiva (Grade II bleb), whereas in the phacofracture trabeculectomy group, all the patients had a Grade I bleb. The bleb classification followed was that of Migdal and Hitchings'. [33]

Visual improvement

The range of preoperative visual acuity in log minimum angle of resolution equivalent varied from 0.5 to 3 in both the groups and the mean visual acuity was 2.14 in phacotrabeculectomy group and 2.21 in phacofracture group. Postoperatively 53% patients in phacotrabeculectomy group and 60% patients in phacofracture group had final corrected visual acuity of 0.3 or better.

[Table 3] depicts the mean postoperative visual acuity in the two groups. At no time in the follow-up period could any significant difference be detected between the two groups. The mean increase of visual acuity in the two groups was comparable on all postoperative days. At the 12 months follow-up the visual acuity was maintained in all except one case who developed posterior capsule opacification necessitating Nd: YAG capsulotomy in the manual phacofracture trabeculectomy group [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Astigmatism change over time in the phacotrabeculectomy and phacofracture trabeculectomy groups

Click here to view
Table 3: Mean postoperative visual acuity (logMAR equivalent) in both the groups

Click here to view

In the phacotrabeculectomy group, the surgery induced an astigmatism of 2.14 D on day 1, which was a 179% increase from preoperative value; mean increase of 1.22 ± 0.51 D. The astigmatism declined to 1.38 D on day 14 (postsuture removal) and stabilised at 1.33 D by the end of 3 months, an ultimate change of 61.66% from preoperative value. In phacofracture trabeculectomy group, the mean astigmatism on day 1 was 2.10 D, which translates into a 167.5% change from the preoperative value. This declined to 1.43 D on day 14 (after bleb forming suture removal) and stabilised at 1.3 D at the end of 3 months an ultimate change by 55.8% from the preoperative level. After this period, there was no further decline in the induced astigmatism. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups at any time interval in the astigmatism induced (P = 0.888, P = 0.842 and P = 0.944 on day 1, day 14 and day 90 respectively). [Figure 3] depicts the astigmatism decline over time.
Figure 3: Graph comparing mean increase of postoperative visual acuity (log minimum angle of resolution equivalent) in both the groups

Click here to view

Corneal health

Preoperatively central corneal thickness as measured by ultrasonic pachymetry was 0.53 mm in both phacotrabeculectomy group and phacofracture trabeculectomy group. On first postoperative day it increased to 0.556 mm (5.3% increase) in phacotrabeculectomy group and 0.560 mm (6.29% increase) in phacofracture trabeculectomy group, which was a statistically significant increase. The corneal edema subsided by day 7 in all cases.

The preoperatively mean corneal endothelial cell count was 2691 cells/mm 2 in phacotrabeculectomy group whereas in phacofracture trabeculectomy group it was 2733 cells/mm 2 , the difference being, not statistically significant. At the final follow-up of 12 months, specular microscopy revealed an endothelial cell loss of 11.7% in the phacotrabeculectomy group, which was statistically significant (P = 0.006) while in phacofracture trabeculectomy group the corresponding figure was 13% at 12 months, which was again statistically significant (P = 0.000). However, no statistically significant intergroup difference was noted [Table 4].
Table 4: Percentage increase in CCT

Click here to view

  Complications Top

There was no anterior chamber inflammation in 67% patients of phacotrabeculectomy group, whereas in the phacofracture trabeculectomy group only 33% cases were free from the inflammatory reaction. The reaction resolved completely by day 14 in both the groups. The grade of anterior chamber inflammation is depicted in [Figure 4].
Figure 4: Comparison of anterior chamber inflammation on day 1 in phacotrabeculectomy and phacofracture trabeculectomy groups

Click here to view

Anterior chamber deepened by 24% in phacotrabeculectomy group and 23% in phacofracture trabeculectomy group, with no statistically significant intergroup difference. At no time was any anterior chamber shallowing noted. The axial length decreased by 0.8% in the phacotrabeculectomy group and 0.4% in phacofracture trabeculectomy group by the end of 12 months.

  Discussion Top

Trabeculectomy combined with cataract surgery is considered a safe, effective and economical strategy in the management of cataract associated with glaucoma. [1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[34] It prevents early IOP spikes responsible for visual field wipeout in advanced glaucoma and provides visual rehabilitation with long-term IOP control. [6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[19],[35],[36],[37],[38],[39],[40],[41] Also, both the diseases are controlled in a single sitting, thus it eliminates the need for glaucoma medications and frequent follow-ups. [13],[34],[36],[37],[38],[39],[45],[46] The advent of small incision cataract surgery both by phacoemulsification or manual small incision along with trabeculectomy has improved the IOP control outcome, [12],[22],[23],[24],[25],[29],[30],[31],[32],[41],[44],[45],[46],[47],[48],[49],[50] reduced complications and has made combined surgery technically faster and superior. Other advantages include less induced astigmatism, early visual rehabilitation, reduced stimuli to wound healing, inflammation and postoperative bleb scarring and thus improving long-term filtration. [12],[22],[23],[24],[27],[28],[29],[30],[31],[32],[41],[44],[46],[47],[48],[50],[51] Thus, the credo of today is small incision cataract surgery whether it be the sophisticated instrument dependent phacoemulsification or the phacofracture technique.

Our results suggest that there is no significant difference in visual acuity and IOP control between phacotrabeculectomy and phacofracture trabeculectomy. The final percentage reduction in mean IOP was 46% in phacoemulsification with trabeculectomy group and 44% in the phacofracture trabeculectomy group. No postoperative hypotony (IOP < 6 mm Hg) or IOP spikes were noted.

The complete success rate (IOP < 21 mmHg) without additional antiglaucoma medications was 100% for both the groups. Most of the studies clearly indicate the superiority of phacoemulsification with trabeculectomy over conventional extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) trabeculectomy. [24],[25],[29],[44],[45] Tezel et al. in 1997 noted that qualified IOP control was achieved in 97% of phacotrabeculectomy group as compared with 88% in ECCE trabeculectomy group, at mean follow-up of 23 months. [24] Shingleton et al. and Kosmin et al. in 1998 published their retrospective comparative studies on ECCE trabeculectomy versus phacotrabeculectomy and reported a better IOP control in the phacotrabeculectomy group. [25],[45] Wishart et al. in 1993 analysed the same prospectively in 34 eyes undergoing phacotrabeculectomy and ECCE trabeculectomy each for around 13 months and again documented a better IOP control in phacotrabeculectomy group compared to ECCE trabeculectomy eyes at 79% versus 53% respectively. [29] similar results were found by Tous et al. when they compared phacotrabeculectomy versus ECCE-trabeculectomy. There was no significant difference (P = 1.000) between the groups in terms of visual acuity improvement rate, 66% (ECCE) versus 59% (Phaco). No significant difference (55% ECCE vs. 63% Phacoemulsification, P = 0.1674) between the two groups in terms of glaucoma medication reduction was found. The total number of postoperative complications (89% vs. 68.5%) were significantly higher in the ECCE-group, as well as the total number of eyes, which required further interventions (86% vs. 64%). [52]

In the few studies comparing phacofracture surgery with trabeculectomy versus phacoemulsification with trabeculectomy the results are similar and our experience also has been the same. Thomas et al. in their retrospective study in 2002 comparing phacotriple in 78 eyes and blumenthal triple in 86 eyes found mean IOP of 17.7 ± 9.3 mm Hg in phacotriple group and 17.1 ± 10 mm Hg in blumenthal triple group at 6 months follow-up, which is similar to our findings of 15.9 mm Hg and 16.6 mm Hg in phacotrabeculectomy and phacofracture trabeculectomy at 12 months. [53]

Both the groups in our study showed a significant gain in the best corrected Snellen's visual acuity postoperatively from the preoperative levels. At 12 months, 53% patients in the phacotrabeculectomy group and 60% patients in phacofracture trabeculectomy group attained a visual acuity of 20/40 or better. This is in concordance with the few studies comparing MSICS trabeculectomy with phacotrabeculectomy. Thomas et al. compared the phacotrabeculectomy technique with blumenthal technique of MSICS trabeculectomy and reported an equivalent visual gain in both groups of 88-89% achieving a visual acuity of 20/40 or better at 17 months. [53]

Tezel et al. who retrospectively analysed 127 eyes undergoing ECCE trabeculectomy and 270 eyes undergoing phacotrabeculectomy over a 2 years period, found postoperative visual acuity of 20/40 or better in 71% eyes of phacotrabeculectomy group whereas the corresponding figure for ECCE trabeculectomy group was a mere 52%. [24] Other studies have reported similar findings of better visual acuity results in phacotrabeculectomy versus ECCE trabeculectomy and the differences documented were highly significant. [12],[29]

In our study, we could not document any statistically significant difference amongst the two groups in terms of mean astigmatism on keratometry preoperatively (P = 0.653). Postoperatively there was a mean astigmatism of 2 D on day 1 (mean change of 1.2 ± 0.5), which reduced to 1.4 D on day 14 (after suture removal) and was 1.3 D at end of 12 months. For phacofracture trabeculectomy group, the mean astigmatism on day 1 was 2 D (a mean change of 1 ± 0.4), which reduced to 1.4 D on day 14 (after suture removal) and at end of 12 months it was 1.3 D (thus contributing to a permanent change of 0.3 ± 0.2 D. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Suture removal contributed to a drastic decrease in astigmatism of 0.7 ± 0.3 D (34% change) in the phacotrabeculectomy group and 0.6 ± 0.3 D (31%) in the phacofracture trabeculectomy group, within 1 week, which was highly significant for both the groups (P = 0.000 in both).

Postoperative corneal edema, which had significantly increased on day 1, subsided by day 7 and stabilized thereafter, the corneal thickness returning to preoperative levels by end of 3 months. At 12 months, both the groups had no residual increase in corneal thickness. Prior studies by Ventura et al. and Amon et al. post phacoemulsification and SICS respectively have concluded that central corneal thickness increased significantly on day 1 but returned to baseline value by 3 and 1 month respectively, which is in concordance with our findings. [54],[55]

We documented a significant endothelial cell loss amounting to 12% in phacotrabeculectomy group and 13% in phacofracture trabeculectomy group. Prior studies, which have evaluated cell loss after phacoemulsification (by divide and conquer technique, similar to our technique), have concluded the cell loss to be between 8.5% and 16% and our findings corroborate the same. [55],[56]

Anterior chamber inflammation was relatively more in the 1 st week in phacofracture group, but this did not extend beyond day 10. The explanation elucidated for this is that the maintenance of a relatively controlled IOP during phacoemulsification incites less chamber reaction. Prior studies by Tezel et al. [24] and Wishart et al. [29] that have compared ECCE trabeculectomy with phacotrabeculectomy also documented lesser anterior chamber inflammatory reaction in phacotrabeculectomy group.

Postsurgery a highly significant increase in central anterior chamber depth of 24% in phacotrabeculectomy group and 23% in phacofracture trabeculectomy was noted at 3 months (P = 0.001). This concurs with previous studies where phacoemulsification alone causes a significant increase in central anterior chamber depth in both glaucomatous and nonglaucomatous eyes. [56],[57] Axial length was reduced by 0.8% in phacotrabeculectomy and 0.4% in phacofracture trabeculectomy at the 3 month, and 12 months follow-up. This has been studied by previous researchers and the decrease in axial length post trabeculectomy has been documented to be 0.2%. [58]

The similar and excellent results achieved in our two groups imply that either technique might be used to handle the problem of concurrent cataract and glaucoma and encourages us to consider adopting the less infrastructure dependent, technically easier, more economical, MSICS trabeculectomy for combined cataract and glaucoma surgery, in developing countries.

  Synopsis Top

Phacofracture trabeculectomy and phacotrabeculectomy are equally efficacious in terms of IOP control, visual acuity gain and surgically induced astigmatism. Thus, phacofracture trabeculectomy is a viable alternative to expensive and infrastructure dependent phacotrabeculectomy.

  References Top

Jerndal T, Lundström M. Trabeculectomy combined with cataract extraction. Am J Ophthalmol 1976;81:227-31.  Back to cited text no. 1
Johns GE, Layden WE. Combined trabeculectomy and cataract extraction. Am J Ophthalmol 1979;88:973-81.  Back to cited text no. 2
Shields MB. Combined cataract extraction and glaucoma surgery. Ophthalmology 1982;89:231-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
Savage JA, Thomas JV, Belcher CD 3 rd , Simmons RJ. Extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation in glaucomatous eyes. Ophthalmology 1985;92:1506-16.  Back to cited text no. 4
Naveh N, Kottass R, Glovinsky J, Blumenthal M, Bar-Sever D. The long-term effect on intraocular pressure of a procedure combining trabeculectomy and cataract surgery, as compared with trabeculectomy alone. Ophthalmic Surg 1990;21:339-45.  Back to cited text no. 5
Krupin T, Feitl ME, Bishop KI. Postoperative intraocular pressure rise in open-angle glaucoma patients after cataract or combined cataract-filtration surgery. Ophthalmology 1989;96:579-84.  Back to cited text no. 6
Shields MB. Another reevaluation of combined cataract and glaucoma surgery. Am J Ophthalmol 1993;115:806-11.  Back to cited text no. 7
McCartney DL, Memmen JE, Stark WJ, Quigley HA, Maumenee AE, Gottsch JD, et al. The efficacy and safety of combined trabeculectomy, cataract extraction, and intraocular lens implantation. Ophthalmology 1988;95:754-63.  Back to cited text no. 8
Katz LJ, Costa VP, Spaeth GL. In: Ritch R, Shields MB, Krupin T, editors. The Glaucomas. 3 rd ed. St. Louis: Mosby-Year book; 1996. p. 1661-702.  Back to cited text no. 9
Dittmer K, Quentin CD. Intraocular pressure regulation after combined glaucoma and cataract operation. Ophthalmology 1998;95:499-503.  Back to cited text no. 10
Hopkins JJ, Apel A, Trope GE, Rootman DS. Early intraocular pressure after phacoemulsification combined with trabeculectomy. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers 1998;29:273-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
Stewart WC, Crinkley CM, Carlson AN. Results of trabeculectomy combined with phacoemulsification versus trabeculectomy combined with extracapsular cataract extraction in patients with advanced glaucoma. Ophthalmic Surg 1994;25:621-7.  Back to cited text no. 12
Neumann R, Zalish M, Oliver M. Effect of intraocular lens implantation on combined extracapsular cataract extraction with trabeculectomy: A comparative study. Br J Ophthalmol 1988;72:741-5.  Back to cited text no. 13
Anders N, Pham T, Holschbach A, Wollensak J. Combined phacoemulsification and filtering surgery with the 'no-stitch' technique. Arch Ophthalmol 1997;115:1245-9.  Back to cited text no. 14
Friedman DS, Jampel HD, Lubomski LH, Kempen JH, Quigley H, Congdon N, et al. Surgical strategies for coexisting glaucoma and cataract: An evidence-based update. Ophthalmology 2002;109:1902-13.  Back to cited text no. 15
Murchison JF Jr, Shields MB. An evaluation of three surgical approaches for coexisting cataract and glaucoma. Ophthalmic Surg 1989;20:393-8.  Back to cited text no. 16
Nielsen PJ. Combined small-incision cataract surgery and trabeculectomy: A prospective study with 1 year of follow-up. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers 1997;28:21-9.  Back to cited text no. 17
Gregg FM. Phacoemulsification and modified trabeculectomy for managing combined cataracts and glaucoma. J Cataract Refract Surg 1992;18:362-5.  Back to cited text no. 18
Schuman JS. Surgical management of coexisting cataract and glaucoma. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers 1996;27:45-59.  Back to cited text no. 19
Hennis HL, Stewart WC. The use of 5-fluorouracil in patients following combined trabeculectomy and cataract extraction. Ophthalmic Surg 1991;22:451-4.  Back to cited text no. 20
Bobrow JC. Prospective intrapatient comparison of extracapsular cataract extraction and lens implantation with and without trabeculectomy. Ophthalmic Surg 1993;24:814-21.  Back to cited text no. 21
Stewart WC, Sine CS, Carlson AN. Three-millimeter versus 6-mm incisions in combined phacoemulsification and trabeculectomy. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers 1996;27:832-8.  Back to cited text no. 22
Lyle WA, Jin JC. Comparison of a 3- and 6-mm incision in combined phacoemulsification and trabeculectomy. Am J Ophthalmol 1991;111:189-96.  Back to cited text no. 23
Tezel G, Kolker AE, Kass MA, Wax MB. Comparative results of combined procedures for glaucoma and cataract: I. Extracapsular cataract extraction versus phacoemulsification and foldable versus rigid intraocular lenses. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers 1997;28:539-50.  Back to cited text no. 24
Shingleton BJ, Jacobson LM, Kuperwaser MC. Comparison of combined cataract and glaucoma surgery using planned extracapsular and phacoemulsification techniques. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers 1995;26:414-9.  Back to cited text no. 25
Seah SK, Jap A, Prata JA Jr, Baerveldt G, Lee PP, Heuer DK, et al. Cataract surgery after trabeculectomy. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers 1996;27:587-94.  Back to cited text no. 26
Wand M. Combined phacoemulsification, intraocular lens implant, and trabeculectomy with intraoperative mitomycin-C: Comparison between 3.2- and 6.0-mm incisions. J Glaucoma 1996;5:301-7.  Back to cited text no. 27
Munden PM, Alward WL. Combined phacoemulsification, posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation, and trabeculectomy with mitomycin C. Am J Ophthalmol 1995;119:20-9.  Back to cited text no. 28
Wishart PK, Austin MW. Combined cataract extraction and trabeculectomy: Phacoemulsification compared with extracapsular technique. Ophthalmic Surg 1993;24:814-21.  Back to cited text no. 29
Allan BD, Barrett GD. Combined small incision phacoemulsification and trabeculectomy. J Cataract Refract Surg 1993;19:97-102.  Back to cited text no. 30
Wedrich A, Menapace R, Radax U, Papapanos P. Long-term results of combined trabeculectomy and small incision cataract surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg 1995;21:49-54.  Back to cited text no. 31
Gous PN, Roux P. Preliminary report of sutureless phacotrabeculectomy through a modified self-sealing scleral tunnel incision. J Cataract Refract Surg 1995;21:160-9.  Back to cited text no. 32
Migdal C, Hitchings R. The developing bleb: Effect of topical antiprostaglandins on the outcome of glaucoma fistulising surgery. Br J Ophthalmol 1983;67:655-60.  Back to cited text no. 33
Liaska A, Papaconstantinou D, Georgalas I, Koutsandrea C, Theodosiadis P, Chatzistefanou K. Phaco-trabeculectomy in controlled, advanced, open-angle glaucoma and cataract: Parallel, randomized clinical study of efficacy and safety. Semin Ophthalmol 2014;29:226-35.  Back to cited text no. 34
Gosiengfiao DH, Latina MA. Avoiding complications in combined phacotrabeculectomy. Semin Ophthalmol 2002;17:138-43.  Back to cited text no. 35
Borggrefe J, Lieb W, Grehn F. A prospective randomized comparison of two techniques of combined cataract-glaucoma surgery. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1999;237:887-92.  Back to cited text no. 36
Hsu CH, Obstbaum SA. Technique and outcome of combined phacoemulsification and trabeculectomy. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 1998;9:9-14.  Back to cited text no. 37
Yu CB, Chong NH, Caesar RH, Boodhoo MG, Condon RW. Long-term results of combined cataract and glaucoma surgery versus trabeculectomy alone in low-risk patients. J Cataract Refract Surg 1996;22:352-7.  Back to cited text no. 38
Parker JS, Gollamudi S, John G, Stark WJ. Combined trabeculectomy, cataract extraction, and foldable lens implantation. J Cataract Refract Surg 1992;18:582-5.  Back to cited text no. 39
Murchison JF Jr, Shields MB. Limbal-based vs fornix-based conjunctival flaps in combined extracapsular cataract surgery and glaucoma filtering procedure. Am J Ophthalmol 1990;109:709-15.  Back to cited text no. 40
Tham CC, Leung DY, Kwong YY, Li FC, Lai JS, Lam DS. Effects of phacoemulsification versus combined phaco-trabeculectomy on drainage angle status in primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG). J Glaucoma 2010;19:119-23.  Back to cited text no. 41
Minassian DC, Rosen P, Dart JK, Reidy A, Desai P, Sidhu M, et al. Extracapsular cataract extraction compared with small incision surgery by phacoemulsification: A randomised trial. Br J Ophthalmol 2001;85:822-9.  Back to cited text no. 42
Gogate PM, Deshpande M, Wormald RP. Is manual small incision cataract surgery affordable in the developing countries? A cost comparison with extracapsular cataract extraction. Br J Ophthalmol 2003;87:843-6.  Back to cited text no. 43
Chia WL, Goldberg I. Comparison of extracapsular and phaco-emulsification cataract extraction techniques when combined with intra-ocular lens placement and trabeculectomy: Short-term results. Aust N Z J Ophthalmol 1998;26:19-27.  Back to cited text no. 44
Kosmin AS, Wishart PK, Ridges PJ. Long-term intraocular pressure control after cataract extraction with trabeculectomy: Phacoemulsification versus extracapsular technique. J Cataract Refract Surg 1998;24:249-55.  Back to cited text no. 45
Cagini C, Murdolo P, Gallai R. Longterm results of one-site phacotrabeculectomy. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2003;81:233-6.  Back to cited text no. 46
Storr-Paulsen A, Bernth-Petersen P. Combined cataract and glaucoma surgery. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2001;12:41-6.  Back to cited text no. 47
El Sayyad F, el-Maghraby A. The contribution of phacoemulsification to combined cataract and glaucoma surgery. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 1998;9:95-100.  Back to cited text no. 48
Tham CC, Kwong YY, Leung DY, Lam SW, Li FC, Chiu TY, et al. Phacoemulsification versus combined phacotrabeculectomy in medically uncontrolled chronic angle closure glaucoma with cataracts. Ophthalmology 2009;116:725-31.e1.  Back to cited text no. 49
Husain R. The management of patients with cataracts and medically uncontrolled glaucoma. Med Hypothesis Discov Innov Ophthalmol 2014;3:20-30.  Back to cited text no. 50
Wang M, Fang M, Bai YJ, Zhang WZ, Lin MK, Liu BQ, et al. Comparison of combined phacotrabeculectomy with trabeculectomy only in the treatment of primary angle-closure glaucoma. Chin Med J (Engl) 2012;125:1429-33.  Back to cited text no. 51
Tous HM, Nevárez J. Comparison of outcomes following combined ECCE-trabeculectomy versus phacoemulsification-trabeculectomy. P R Health Sci J 2006;25:319-23.  Back to cited text no. 52
Thomas R, Parikh R, Muliyil J. Comparison between phacoemulsification and the Blumenthal technique of manual small-incision cataract surgery combined with trabeculectomy. J Glaucoma 2003;12:333-9.  Back to cited text no. 53
Ventura AC, Wälti R, Böhnke M. Corneal thickness and endothelial density before and after cataract surgery. Br J Ophthalmol 2001;85:18-20.  Back to cited text no. 54
Amon M, Menapace R, Radax U, Papapanos P. Endothelial cell density and corneal pachometry after no-stitch, small-incision cataract surgery. Doc Ophthalmol 1992;81:301-7.  Back to cited text no. 55
Hayashi K, Hayashi H, Nakao F, Hayashi F. Changes in anterior chamber angle width and depth after intraocular lens implantation in eyes with glaucoma. Ophthalmology 2000;107:698-703.  Back to cited text no. 56
Altan C, Bayraktar S, Altan T, Eren H, Yilmaz OF. Anterior chamber depth, iridocorneal angle width, and intraocular pressure changes after uneventful phacoemulsification in eyes without glaucoma and with open iridocorneal angles. J Cataract Refract Surg 2004;30:832-8.  Back to cited text no. 57
Francis BA, Wang M, Lei H, Du LT, Minckler DS, Green RL, et al. Changes in axial length following trabeculectomy and glaucoma drainage device surgery. Br J Ophthalmol 2005;89:17-20.  Back to cited text no. 58


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
Materials and Me...
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded25    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal