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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 150-151

Opportunistic Screening for Alcohol and Tobacco Use Among Male Patients Seeking Care From an Urban Primary Health Center

1 Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, JIPMER, Puducherry, India
3 Department of Community Medicine, MAMC, New Delhi, India

Date of Submission01-Aug-2019
Date of Acceptance05-Sep-2019
Date of Web Publication16-Dec-2019

Correspondence Address:
MD Jayalakshmi R
Associate Professor, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, JIPMER, Puducherry - 605006
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/mamcjms.mamcjms_63_19

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How to cite this article:
Nagappa B, Jayalakshmi, Sujiv A, Marimuthu Y. Opportunistic Screening for Alcohol and Tobacco Use Among Male Patients Seeking Care From an Urban Primary Health Center. MAMC J Med Sci 2019;5:150-1

How to cite this URL:
Nagappa B, Jayalakshmi, Sujiv A, Marimuthu Y. Opportunistic Screening for Alcohol and Tobacco Use Among Male Patients Seeking Care From an Urban Primary Health Center. MAMC J Med Sci [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Apr 6];5:150-1. Available from: http://www.mamcjms.in/text.asp?2019/5/3/150/273288


This is an era in which noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are emerging like an epidemic. Globally, NCDs contribute to 70% of all deaths.[1] Majority of this mortality is due to modifiable behavioral risk factors like tobacco use and harmful use of alcohol.[1] Every year, 7.2 million deaths and 3.3 million deaths are attributed to tobacco and alcohol use, respectively.[1] Apart from NCDs, tobacco use negatively impacts reproductive and mental health of the person.[2],[3] Alcohol and tobacco use have a significant impact on the social and economic development of the country through increases in the medical costs and loss of productivity.[4] It is essential to find the proportion of patients with tobacco and alcohol dependence to plan for deaddiction services. Patients’ visit to healthcare facility is an opportunity to screen for these risk factors and eventually link them for cessation services.

We conducted a facility-based cross-sectional study to find out the proportion of adult male outpatients with nicotine dependence and alcohol use disorder. All adult male patients seeking outpatient care in Urban Health Center of Puducherry during the month of June 2016 after getting informed verbal consent were included in the study. A semistructured questionnaire was used to obtain information on sociodemographic characteristics, and tobacco and alcohol use. Nicotine dependence was assessed using Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND)[5] and alcohol use disorder using alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT) scale.[6] The data were entered using EpiData Entry v3.1 and analyzed using EpiData analysis.[7] Tobacco use, alcohol use, nicotine dependence, and alcohol use disorder were expressed in percentage with 95% confidence interval (CI) [Table 1].
Table 1 Characteristics of study participants (N = 75)

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In total, 75 participants were interviewed. The mean age (standard deviation) was 50 (15) years. A total of 30 participants (40%) were educated more than 10th standard and a majority 41 (53%) were unemployed. Of the total, 47 (62% [95% CI: 51%–73%]) participants used alcohol and 45 (60% [95% CI: 49%–71%]) used tobacco. Among alcohol users, 23 (51% [95% CI: 37%–65%]) had AUDIT score above dependency level (more than 8) and 15 (32% [95% CI: 19%–45%]) were willing to quit. Among tobacco users, 40 (89% [95% CI: 80%–98%]) were nicotine dependent and 24 (53% [95% CI: 38%–68%]) were willing to quit tobacco.

In conclusion, more than half of the male patients seeking care from primary health center were using alcohol or tobacco. One out of two alcohol users and nine out of ten tobacco users were dependent and required cessation services. Integrating substance abuse cessation services at primary health center level can help in reducing the ill effects of tobacco and alcohol use.

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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

World Health Organization [Internet]. The Global Status Report on Non Communicable Diseases. Geneva, 2010. Available at http://www.who.int/nmh/publications/ ncd_report. [Accessed March 22, 2018].  Back to cited text no. 1
Hatcher JL, Sterba KR, Tooze JA, Day TA, Carpenter MJ, Alberg AJ et al. Tobacco use and surgical outcomes in head and neck cancer patients. Head Neck 2016;38:700-6.  Back to cited text no. 2
Laniado-Laborín R. Smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Parallel epidemics of the 21st Century. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2009;6:209-24.  Back to cited text no. 3
World Health Organization [Internet]. WHO Global Report: Mortality Attributable to Tobacco; World Health Organization Press: Geneva, Switzerland, 2012. Available at www.who.int/tobacco/publications/surveillance/rep_mortality_attributable/en/. [Accessed March 22, 2018].  Back to cited text no. 4
Babor TF, Biddle JCH, Saunders JB, Monterio MG. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Guidelines for Use in Primary Care. Report No.: WHO/MSD/MSB/01.6a. World Health Organisation; 2001. 41p.  Back to cited text no. 5
Mushtaq N, Beebe LA. Evaluating the role of tobacco use indices as brief measures of dependence. Addict Behav 2017;69:87-92.  Back to cited text no. 6
Bennett S, Myatt Mark, Jolley D, Radalowicz A. Data Management for Surveys and Trials - A Practical Primer using EpiData. Available from: http://www.epidata.dk/documentation.php.  Back to cited text no. 7


  [Table 1]


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