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   Table of Contents      
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 73-76

Analysis of Homicidal Cases Brought to Mortuary of Lok Nayak Hospital, Delhi: A 3-Year Retrospective study


Department of Forensic Medicine, Maulana Azad Medical College and Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication20-Aug-2019

Correspondence Address:
Senior Resident Rohit Bharti
Department of Forensic Medicine, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/mamcjms.mamcjms_30_19

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  Abstract 


Destruction of an individual is the most heinous expression of aggression found in any culture. Homicidal investigation requires a scientific and detailed analysis of circumstances and a trough autopsy. And to take a directed step in preventing a crime, the pattern of crime is to be known. The present study was done in Lok Nayak Hospital, Delhi, to observe the trend of homicide. It was seen that males were predominantly involved with higher incidences being in the age group of 21 to 40 years of life. Blunt objects were more frequently used and head injuries were chiefly causing deaths.

Keywords: Cause of death, homicide, injuries, murder, weapon


How to cite this article:
Buchade DD, Bharti R, Amarnath A. Analysis of Homicidal Cases Brought to Mortuary of Lok Nayak Hospital, Delhi: A 3-Year Retrospective study. MAMC J Med Sci 2019;5:73-6

How to cite this URL:
Buchade DD, Bharti R, Amarnath A. Analysis of Homicidal Cases Brought to Mortuary of Lok Nayak Hospital, Delhi: A 3-Year Retrospective study. MAMC J Med Sci [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Sep 22];5:73-6. Available from: http://www.mamcjms.in/text.asp?2019/5/2/73/264780




  Introduction Top


Homicide is one of the oldest crimes in human civilization. With time, the weapon of offence has changed from hand and stones being used by cave man to modern firearm and technology. The change in pattern of homicide may be because of population explosion, changing life style, modern needs of the man, and easy availability of various types of weapons.[1] Assessing the burden of the issue region-wise is important to explore ways to implement laws. Homicidal investigation requires a scientific and detailed analysis of circumstances and is never complete without a trough autopsy.

This retrospective study was conducted to analyze the trend of homicide. The purpose was to help lawmakers in taking directed steps to prevent such unnatural cause of death.


  Material and Methods Top


The present retrospective study was conducted at Department of Forensic Medicine at Maulana Azad Medical College and Lok Nayak Hospital New Delhi. The data of three calendar years from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2015 was collected from postmortem notes of the deceased. The data were collected in a proforma prepared for this study purpose. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 20.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). Interpretation of the collected data was performed by using appropriate statistical methods.


  Observations and Results Top


In the present study, males were found to be the common victim consisting of 156 cases (68.7%) with a male:female ratio of 2.19:1. The age group of 21 to 40 years was most commonly affected consisting of 150 cases (66.1%) whereas age group more than 61 years was least affected amounting to seven cases (3.1%). Youngest victim of this study was a 3-month-old female that was a case of infanticide and the oldest victim was of 73 years. While analyzing religion, Hindu constituted the maximum number of 151 cases (66.5%). In 30 cases (13.2%), the religion of the deceased was not known. Day-wise analysis revealed that most of the incidents occurred on Monday [36 cases (15.9%)] whereas least incidents were noted on Friday [25 cases (11%)]. The homicide incidents were more in Rainy season (July, August, September, and October) [84 cases (37%)].

Most of the victims [89 cases (39.3%)] were spot dead/brought dead followed by period of survival of 1 to 10 days of 63 cases (27.8%) after hospitalization. Abrasion [114 cases (50.2%)] and contusion [113 cases (49.8%)] were most commonly found mechanical injuries over body of victims whereas chop injuries [three cases (1.3%)] were least commonly found in this study. Hard and blunt weapon was the most commonly used [115 cases (50.7%)], whereas sharp-edged heavy weapons [three cases (1.3%)] were the least commonly used. In 42 cases (18.5%), more than one weapon was used. The most common cause of death was craniocerebral damages [96 cases (42.3%)] followed by shock and hemorrhage [58 cases (25.6%)]. In 10 cases (4.4%), death was the result of combined effects of more than one cause of death. Most common cases of homicide were of physical assault [127 cases (55.9%)] followed by victims of burns [47 cases (20.8%)], and the least number of victims were of throttling [four cases (1.7%)]. Total three cases (1.3%) of infanticide were found with all victims of female gender. In one case, air compressor was used as the weapon by inserting it into anus resulting into rupture of large intestines and death subsequently by septicemia [Table 1],[Table 2],[Table 3],[Table 4],[Table 5],[Table 6],[Table 7],[Table 8],[Table 9],[Table 10].
Table 1 Gender-wise distribution of cases

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Table 2 Age group-wise distribution of cases

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Table 3 Religion-wise distribution of cases

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Table 4 Day-wise distribution of cases

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Table 5 Season-wise distribution of cases

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Table 6 Period of survival after the incident

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Table 7 Nature of injuries observed

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Table 8 Type of weapon used

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Table 9 Cause of death

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Table 10 Type of cases

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  Discussion Top


Homicide is as old as civilization and reported as early as in the Bible. Most of this crime involves male probably due to increased outdoor activities, aggression, and risk-taking behavior. In the present study, males constituted 68.7% of homicidal victims. This was in par with the studies done in Mumbai (69.01%), Hubballi (69.9%), Bhavnagar (71.19%), and Mangaluru.[2],[3],[4],[5] Some parts of the country like Bangalore (75%), Surat (78.3%), Indore (78.95%), and Amritsar (82.5%) showed higher incidence in males than the present study,[6],[7],[8],[9] whereas few studies showed a very high incidence of male victims as in Manipur (ratio being 6.3:1).[10] This exponentially higher incidence of male being victims may be due to the militant activity.

In the present study, the susceptible age group was found to be 21 to 40 years and that accounted for 66.1% of homicidal deaths. This age group is more active, aggressive, short tempered, and more vulnerable to changing social trends. Similar observation was reported in Mumbai, Hubballi, Surat, Chhattisgarh, Amritsar, Bhavnagar, Mangaluru, Bhopal, Mysore, Bangalore, Rajkot, and Indore.[1],[2],[3],[4] Homicides associated with sexual assaults were more common in the age group of 11 to 20 years of life.[17]

Most of the victims were Hindus. This could be due to the increased population of Hindus. Similar observation was seen in Surat and a study on femicide in Tamil Nadu.[14],[18]

Higher incidence of homicide (37%) was noted during the winter and rainy season (July, August, September, and October) followed by summer season (March, April, May, and June) (34.8%). This was in par with the observation in Chhattisgarh and Surat.[11],[14] In contrast to our study, an increased incidence of homicides was observed during summer in Bhopal and Indore.[8],[12] In this study, death occurred on spot in 39.3% of cases, pointing toward the lethality of the weapon used and force that was applied. Increased incidence of spot death was noted at Hubballi (51.1%), Bhopal (76.1%), Bangalore (82.5%), and Rajkot (65%).[1],[3],[12],[15]

Blunt objects were observed to be the most commonly used weapon of offence in this study. The weapon of offence depends on the availability. Usage of blunt object to kill was also seen in Mumbai, Hubballi, Surat, Chhattisgarh, Guwahati, Jaipur, and Indore.[2],[3],[7],[8],[11],[16],[19],[20] This was in contrast to the observation noted in Bhavnagar, Mangaluru, Bhopal, Bangalore, and Rajkot where sharp force was mainly used.[4],[5],[6] The usage of sharp weapon points toward premeditated crime whereas the blunt weapon could possibly be due to explosive response.[4] In militant-prone areas, as in Manipur, firearm have been reported to be used more often (61.4%) as the weapon of offence. The lack of this trend in other parts of the country is due to the strict firearm legislations. Most commonly used weapons were hard and blunt objects. Similarly, abrasion was the most common injury observed followed by contusion.Cause of death was predominantly head injury followed by hemorrhage. This was consistent with the studies conducted at Guwahati and Rajkot.[15],[19] However, this was not the same observation in Mumbai, Hubballi, Bhavnagar, Mangaluru, Indore, and Surat where hemorrhage was the most common cause of death.[2],[3],[4],[5]


  Conclusion Top


This study shows that males in the age group of 21 to 40 years of life are most commonly the victims of homicide. In Delhi, blunt objects were observed to be commonly used as a weapon of offence. Majority of the cases died on the spot and cause of death was head injury.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Hugar BS, Girish Chandra YP, Harish S, Jayanth SH. Pattern of homicidal deaths. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2010;32:194-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Buchade DD, Mohite SC. Pattern of injuries in homicidal cases in Greater Mumbai: a three year study. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2011;33:46-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Nayak GH, Madhu Sudhan S, Ravindra Kumar CN. Study of pattern of homicidal deaths autopsied at KIMS Hospital, Hubballi. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2018;40:340-2.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Parmar DJ, Bhagora LR, Parmar RD, Suvera KM. Recent trends of homicidal deaths in Bhavnagar region: a two year retrospective study. Int Arch Integr Med 2015;2:45-54.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Kiran M, Shetty M, Shetty SS, Shetty V. Analysis of homicidal deaths in a tertiary care centre of non-metropollitian city of South India: a retrospective study. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2017;39:384-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Shivakumar BC, Vishwanath D, Srivastava PC. Trends of homicidal deaths at a tertiary care centre Bengaluru. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2011;33:26-30.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Prajapati P, Sheikh MI, Patel S. A study of homicidal deaths by mechanical injuries in Surat, Gujarat. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2010;32:134-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Rastogi AK, Singh BK, Dadu SK, Thakur PS, Lanjewar AK, Raput PP. Trends of homicidal deaths in Indore (M.P.) region one year retrospective study. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2013;35:343-5.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Mittal S, Garg S, Mittal MS, Chanana A, Rai H. Homicides by sharp weapons. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2007;29:61-3.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Angam G, Maring SK, Kh. Pradipkumar Singh. A study of homicide victims in JNIMS Hospital, Imphal. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2018;40:143-5.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Patel DJ. Analysis of homicidal deaths in and around Bastar region of Chhattisgarh. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2012;34:139-42.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Mishra PK, Yadav J, Singh S, Dubey BP. Pattern of injuries in homicidal deaths in Bhopal region. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2012;34:195-8.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Dayananda R, Kumar MP, Rayamane AP, Saraf A, Ravi N, Chandrashekar TN. Pattern of defence injuries in homicidal deaths. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2015;37:229-31.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Zanzrukiya KM, Tailor CI, Chandegara PV, Govekar GP, Patel UP, Parkhe SN. Profile of homicidal death cases at Government Medical College and New Civil Hospital, Surat. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2014;3:885-8.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Jainik PS, Dipak HV, Mangal HM, Viral NC, Sunil MD, Dipak BC. Profile of homicidal deaths in and around Rajkot region, Gujarat. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2013;35:33-6.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Gupta S, Prajapati P, Kumar S. Victimology of homicide: a Surat (South Gujarat) based study. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2007;29:29-33.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Memchoubi P, Meera Devi T, Devi NP, Das NG. Sexual homicides (a retrospective study at RIMS, Imphal, from 2000-2014). J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2017;39:239-42.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Mohanty SK, Maddileti GB, Kumar V, Mohanty S, Ready KB, Bhuvan V. Femicide: a retrospective study in Indian scenario. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2015;37:29-34.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Malik Y, Chaliha RR, Malik P, Sangwan K, Rathi C. Head in homicides: a post-mortem study from North East India. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2013;35:249-50.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Punia RK, Yadav A, Lalchand XX. Pattern of head injuries in homicidal deaths at Jaipur during 2012-13, India: an autopsy based study. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2014; 36:242-5.  Back to cited text no. 20
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9], [Table 10]



 

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