|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 79-86
Crime Solvers: A Correlative Study Amongst 500 Individuals
Akansha Misra1, Deepankar Misra2, Shalu Rai2, Mohit Dadu3, Mansi Khatri2, Priyank Mallick2
1 Department of Oral Pathology, Institute of Dental Studies and Technologies, Kadrabad, Modinagar, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Dental Studies and Technologies, Kadrabad, Modinagar, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Community Dentistry, Institute of Dental Studies and Technologies, Kadrabad, Modinagar, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
|Date of Web Publication||28-Jun-2017|
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Dental Studies and Technologies, Kadrabad, Modinagar, Ghaziabad 201201, Uttar Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Context: Human blood group, lip prints, and fingerprints are unique to an individual. Literature reveals very few studies correlating all three parameters simultaneously, emphasizing the need of further studies with different parameters taken together to increase the success rate of such identification methods. Aims and Objectives: To determine the correlation among lip prints, fingerprints, and blood groups and their importance in forensic dentistry. Materials and Methods: Study group included 500 patients and their lip prints, fingerprints, and blood groups were analyzed and recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 18.0; IBM, Armonk, New York, USA. Chi-square test was used to find the significance of study parameters on categorical scale between two or more than two groups. Results: Correlating all three parameters together we found in males maximum incidence of individuals in loop type fingerprint with intersecting type lip pattern in B-positive blood group individuals (n = 25, 10%), and the results were statistically significant (P < 0.001). In females, maximum incidence of individuals was seen in loop type fingerprint with full-length type lip pattern in O-positive blood group individuals (n = 43, 17.2%); however, the results were statistically nonsignificant (P = 0.027). Conclusion: Considering these parameters together may help to obtain more accurate results and increase the reliability of assessment.
Keywords: Blood groups, fingerprints, identification, lip prints, odontology
|How to cite this article:|
Misra A, Misra D, Rai S, Dadu M, Khatri M, Mallick P. Crime Solvers: A Correlative Study Amongst 500 Individuals. MAMC J Med Sci 2017;3:79-86
|How to cite this URL:|
Misra A, Misra D, Rai S, Dadu M, Khatri M, Mallick P. Crime Solvers: A Correlative Study Amongst 500 Individuals. MAMC J Med Sci [serial online] 2017 [cited 2017 Sep 19];3:79-86. Available from: http://www.mamcjms.in/text.asp?2017/3/2/79/209019
| Introduction|| |
Forensic dentistry deals with the relationship of teeth and jaws as an evidence in court of law. In forensics, identification comprises of physical, functional, psychological, and pathological characteristics of an individual. Every individual has certain distinctive features that makes him/her radically distinct and unique from others. Traces from the scene may be carried away on the person and at the same time may be left at the scene. The court of law relies on physical facts and data that can be used as evidences, which can be achieved by analyzing these physical characteristics. Unusual and newer methods of personal identification in forensic sciences are performed by age and gender determination using anthropometry, dactyloscopy, palatal rugae pattern, DNA fingerprinting, differentiation of blood groups, hand writing, and bite marks. Cheiloscopy is the study of grooves and furrows present on the red part or the vermilion border of the human lips. These are unique and are considered as an important tool in forensic identification.
Blood group is another biological record that remains unchanged throughout the life time of a person. Cheiloscopy and dactyloscopy along with blood groups are of paramount importance, as performing a personal identification by other means such as DNA analysis is sophisticated, and they are not available in rural and developing countries., Individual studies have been conducted to correlate dactyloscopy with blood groups and lip prints with blood groups, respectively.,, This study was conducted to correlate all three parameters of an individual and to determine if there is any correlation among lip print pattern (cheiloscopy), fingerprint pattern (dactyloscopy), and blood groups, which can be used in forensic identification of an individual.
| Aims and Objectives|| |
The study was carried out to ascertain the distribution of different lip and fingerprint patterns among subjects having different ABO and Rh blood groups and to determine the correlation between their characters in forensic dentistry.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The study was carried out at Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, IDST Modinagar, Uttar Pradesh in 2016 after ethical clearance from the institutional ethical committee. A sample of 500 patients, 250 males and 250 females visiting the outpatient department, were arbitrarily selected for the study. The required sample size was calculated by the formula: n = P(1−P)Zx2/c2[1 + P(1−P)(Zx/c)2/N] as population size is not finite, formula turns out to be: n = P(1−P)Zx2/c2
P is the prevalence (it is unknown in the present case so kept as 50%), Zx2 is the 1.96 (at 95% confidence level), and c2 is the precision error = 4.5%.
Sample size comes out to be 475 by the above formula. Keeping 5% recording error, total sample size to be taken for the study comes out to be 475 + 25 = 500.
An informed written consent was obtained from the subjects participating in the study.
Intraexaminer reliability was established by repeated observations by the single examiner (Chronbach’s α = 0.96).
For lip prints, pathology sans lips, having absolutely normal transition zone between the mucosa and the skin were included in the study. For fingerprints, thumb of right hand, free from any pathology and injury was chosen. For blood samples, patients free from any communicable disease or systemic illness were included in the study.
Subjects with deformities of lips like cleft lip, ulcers, traumatic injury on lips, allergy to the lipstick used, subjects with cuts and lesions on the finger, and subjects with history of communicable or systemic disease were excluded from the study.
Method for Obtaining and Analyzing Lip Prints
The lip prints were recorded by the method as described by Sivapathasundharam et al. Each individual was asked to gently clean his/her own lips by rinsing in water and the lips were allowed to dry. A dark colored lipstick was applied evenly in one stroke and the subject was asked to spread it uniformly by gentle movements of the lips. The sticky side of the cellophane tape was placed over the lips in resting position and then pressed uniformly. Tape was gently removed from the lips without distorting the lip print. Cellophane tape was then stuck to the bond sheet.,
The lip prints were classified according to Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification as follows:
- Type I: Vertical grooves that run across the entire lips
- Type I′: Similar to type I, but the grooves do not cover the entire lip
- Type II: Branched grooves
- Type III: Intersected grooves
- Type IV: Reticular grooves
- Type V: Grooves do not fall into any of the types I–IV and cannot be differentiated morphologically (undetermined).
The middle third portion of the lower lip was considered for the analysis as this area is always present in a lip print.
Method for Obtaining and Analyzing Fingerprints
Each individual was asked to gently clean his/her own hands to eradicate any dirt and oil from the ridged skin and were air dried to improve the quality of fingerprints. Fingerprints were recorded by Cummins’ ink method. Black duplicating ink was used to record fingerprints of all the subjects which were applied on the fingers with sponge head rolling paint brush. The benefit of using black duplicating ink was that the prints achieved were clear and did not get smudged and the prints could be preserved for an indistinct period of time. The digits were guided and pressed tightly against the white bond paper clipped on to a hard board.
The primary patterns obtained were observed with the help of powerful magnifying lens. Classification given by Michael Kucken was followed for analysis of fingerprints:
- Loop pattern
- Arch pattern
- Whorl pattern.
Method for Obtaining and Analyzing Blood Group
Each individual was asked to place his arm on a firm base and inspection of the antecubital fossa of patient was performed after extending patient’s arm. A vein of a good size, was located, and tourniquet was applied about four to five finger widths above the venipuncture site. The site was cleaned with a 70% alcohol swab for 30 s and allowed to dry completely (30 s). Patient was asked to form a fist so the veins could become more prominent and the vein was punctured swiftly at a 30° angle or less. After collection of sufficient blood the tourniquet was released before withdrawing the needle. The needle was gently withdrawn and gentle pressure was applied to the site with clean gauze. The patient was later asked to hold the gauze in place, with the arm extended and raised.
Blood groups of the subjects were analyzed by placing a drop of blood on the slide and treated with anti-A and anti-B sera. Positive agglutination of the blood on treating with anti-A was considered as blood group “A”, positive reaction with anti-B was considered as blood group “B”. The blood group was referred to as “O” in case of no agglutination and if agglutination was seen with both antisera, then blood group was referred as “AB”. Similarly positive agglutination reaction with Rh antigen was considered Rh positive or otherwise Rh negative.
The statistical software namely SPSS 18.0 (Armonk, New York, USA) was used for analysis of the data and Microsoft Excel have been used to generate graphs and tables.
Descriptive statistical analysis has been carried out in the present study. Results on categorical measurements are presented in numbers (%). Significance is assessed at 5% level of significance. Chi-square test has been used to find the significance of study parameters on categorical scale between two or more than two groups.
| Results|| |
A total of 500 individuals were included in the study, comprising 250 males and 250 females. [Table 1] and [Figure 1] show distribution and comparison of various blood groups in the study population. O positive blood group was found to be in maximum individuals, n = 180 (36.6%) with 121 females (48.4%) and 59 males (23.6%). Overall most common blood group in males was B positive, n = 95 (38.0%) and O positive in females, n = 121 (48.4%). Difference in blood groups in males and females was significant (P < 0.001). [Table 2] and [Figure 2] showed distribution and comparison of various lip prints in the study population. Almost one-third of study population showed type I lip print, 162 (32.4%) with 58 males (23.2%) and 104 (41.6%) females. Overall, most common lip prints in males was Type III, n = 80 (32.0%) and Type I in females, n = 104 (41.6%). Difference in lip print types in males and females was significant (P < 0.001). [Table 3] and [Figure 3] showed distribution and comparison of various fingerprints. More than half of study population showed loop type fingerprint, 270 (54.0%) with 145 males (58.0%) and 125 (50.0%) females. Overall, most common fingerprint in males was also found in loop type. Difference in fingerprint type in males and females was significant (P < 0.001).
Gender-wise correlation between fingerprints and blood groups in males showed blood group B positive has maximum 84 individuals (88.4%) in loop type fingerprint followed by blood group O positive with 48 individuals (81.4%) in whorl type fingerprint. In females, blood group O positive was present in maximum 65 individuals (53.7%) in whorl type fingerprint followed by 56 individuals (46.3%) in whorl type fingerprint in same blood group. The results were significant y different in males and females (P < 0.001) [Table 4].
Gender-wise correlation between blood groups and lip prints in males showed blood group A positive was present in maximum 34 individuals (52.3%) with Type III lip print followed by blood group B positive with 27 individuals (28.4%) with Type I lip print. In females, blood group O positive was present in maximum 78 individuals (64.5%) with Type I lip print followed by blood group B positive with 22 individuals (36.7%) with Type II lip print. The results were significant y different in males and females (P < 0.001) [Table 5].
Gender-wise correlation between lip prints and fingerprints in males showed whorl type fingerprint was present in maximum 39 individuals (43.8%) with Type III lip print followed by loop type fingerprint with 36 individuals (24.8%). In females, loop type fingerprint was present in maximum 47 individuals (37.6%) with Type I lip print followed by 41 individuals (24.8%) in Type II lip print in same fingerprint. The results were very highly significant y different in males and females (P < 0.001) [Table 6].
Correlating all three parameters together, we found in our study, in males maximum individuals had loop type fingerprint with Intersecting type lip pattern in B positive blood group individuals (n = 25, 10%); followed by whorl type fingerprint with Intersecting type lip pattern in A positive blood group individuals (n = 23, 9.2%). The results were statistically significant (P < 0.001). In females, maximum incidence of individuals was seen in loop type fingerprint with full length type lip pattern in O positive blood group individuals (n = 43, 17.2%) followed by whorl type fingerprint in same lip pattern and blood group (n = 35, 14%). The results were statistically nonsignificant (P = 0.027) [[Table 7] and [Table 8]].
|Table 7: Correlation of blood group, lip print, and finger print in males|
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|Table 8: Correlation of blood group, lip print, and finger print in females|
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| Discussion|| |
Human identification is one of the most arduous works that man has been confronted with. Human body is unique in it characteristics because of its multifarious structures and diverse functions, with every structure maintaining the physiological equilibrium. The characteristics formed by lip patterns and fingerprints are distinctive and unique to an individual in terms of morphology and do not change during their life., Blood is the most common and important evidence for identification and verification of an unknown’s identity. Forensic science uses a system called the “ABO” system that measures the antigens.
Other methods commonly used for fast and secure identification like DNA fingerprinting have been used for forensic identification. Advantages of using this technique include the following:
- Reliable method which is easy and painless for subjects being tested.
- It can be conducted in a relatively short amount of time
- It is a widely accepted method and is used in legal claims, missing person’s cases, identification for the military, and paternity and prenatal testing.
However, this method has certain disadvantages, including complex and tedious process, which may be hard to interpret and require a lot of expertise in the field. The sample of DNA can be easily destroyed making it completely useless for testing. This method is associated with ethical and social issues as it deals with identity of an individual and can be misused if not securely kept in the forensic lab.,
Overall and Gender Distribution of the Variables [Table 1],[Table 2],[Table 3]
Among the study group, O positive blood group was found to be the most prevalent type (180 individuals; 36.6%) followed by B positive (155; 31%), and the least prevalent type of blood group were A negative (2; 0.8%) and AB negative (1; 0.4%). This was in accordance with the study conducted by Periyavan et al. in 2010 who found O positive blood group to be most prevalent type in their study population. However, Bhavana et al. in 2013 found B positive blood group to be most prevalent type in their study population. Gender-wise distribution of blood group revealed that B positive was the predominant type in males (95, 38.0%), whereas O positive was predominant in females (121, 48.4%); this is again in accordance with study performed by Bhavana et al. in 2013 who found similar gender-wise distribution.
Amongst the lip prints in study population, full length was found to be in majority of the individuals (162; 32.4%) followed by partial length (97, 19.4%), and the least prevalent type were Reticular (49, 9.8%) and branched 47 (9.4%). This is contrary to the findings reported by Verghese et al. in 2010 who found overall Reticular type in majority in study population. Gender-wise distribution of lip prints revealed intersecting (80, 32.0%) was predominant in males and full length (104, 41.6%) in females, this is in contrast with study performed by Rastogi et al. in 2011 where partial length was found to be most common lip pattern and full length and partial length were common in males and intersecting, branched were common in females.
Amongst the fingerprints in study population, loop type (270, 54.0%) was most common followed by whorl (161, 32%) and least in arch type (69, 13.8%). These findings were in accordance to the study conducted by Bhardwaja et al. in 2004 where loop pattern was found to be in high frequency followed by whorl, and arch type and loop type were also predominant in both genders in males (145, 58.0%) and in females (125, 50.0%).
Correlation of Two Parameters [Table 4],[Table 5],[Table 6]
Correlation of fingerprints and blood group revealed whorl pattern was most common in O positive males (n = 48) and O positive females (n = 65). Similar findings were found by Bhavna et al. 2013 who found whorls were predominant in B positive and O positive blood groups; however, overall loops were predominant in their study population. Correlation of lip prints and blood groups revealed intersecting pattern was most common in A positive males (n = 34) and full length pattern was more common in O positive individuals (n = 78). The findings were similar with Telagi et al. in 2011 and Karim et al. who found Intersecting type more common in A positive blood group; however, Telagi et al. found full length was also common in A positive blood group. Correlation of lip prints and fingerprints revealed intersecting pattern was more common in 39 males with whorl type fingerprint (n = 39) and full length pattern was more common in loop type of fingerprint (n = 47). These findings were in contrast to study performed by Nagasupriya et al. who found significant association between arch type fingerprint and branched type lip print in males and arch type fingerprint and vertical lip pattern in females.
Correlation of Blood Groups, Lip Prints, and Fingerprints [[Table 7] and [Table 8]]
Correlating all three parameters together in our study in males, we found maximum incidence of individuals was seen in loop type fingerprint with intersecting type lip pattern in B positive blood group individuals (n = 25, 10%). The results were statistically significant (P < 0.001). In females maximum incidence of individuals was seen in loop type fingerprint with full length type lip pattern in O positive blood group individuals (n = 43, 17.2%). The results were statistically nonsignificant (P = 0.027). Similar study was conducted by Srilekha et al. in 2014 with 27 males and 27 females, and the authors first found the most common type within individual groups, respectively, then did intergroup comparison between two groups and finally intergroup comparison between three groups. They found both B positive blood group–loop type fingerprint–type IV lip pattern combination and O positive blood group–loop type fingerprint–Type I lip pattern combination were predominant in their study population. However, gender-wise most predominant combinations were not established by the authors. Harsha et al. conducted a study in 2015 on 158 subjects of Tamil Nadu, India and found comparing all three parameters together the results were not statistically significant. Similar findings were reported by Vardhaman et al. who conducted a study in 2017 on 200 subjects of Pune, Maharashtra, India and found correlating all three parameters together the results were not significant. However, each parameter, that is, cheiloscopy, dactyloscopy, and blood groups individually played a vital role in identification.
Strength of the Study
The present study provides a baseline data for future assessments and comparisons on cheiloscopy, dactyloscopy, and blood groups. It provides the forensic expert with key information regarding the correlation of all three parameters together for forensic identification of an individual. Data were complete for each subject participated in the study stimulating further studies on forensic identification. The present study provides glimpse of distribution of different lip patterns, fingerprint pattern, and blood groups among individuals.
Limitations of the Study
Subjects with lip and finger pathologies and deformities and with systemic and communicable blood disease could not be established as they were not assessed. Forensic identification of such individual remains questionable. The present study is not devoid of bias due to presence of confounding factors in formulating relationship between the three parameters.
| Conclusion|| |
Considering cheiloscopy, blood groups, and dactyloscopy together may help us to obtain more accurate results and increase the reliability of assessment. Our study correlates all three parameters, yielding highly significant correlation in males; however, it was nonsignificant in females. We conclude, further studies correlating different parameters should be conducted in future to ascertain accurate identification by increasing the overall success rate using different methods which may further unravel the path to unsolved mysteries.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8]