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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 69-79

Management of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleed


Department of Surgery, Maulana Azad Medical College and Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. V Jain
72, Anupam Apartments, B 13 Vausundhara Enclave, New Delhi - 110 096
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2394-7438.157913

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Upper gastrointestinal bleed (UGIB) causes significant morbidity and mortality the world over. The two main causes have been due to increasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use along with the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with peptic ulcer and bleeding from gastroesophageal varices due to portal hypertension. Other causes of esophageal tears, gastrointestinal malignancy, and arteriovenous malformations also contribute to the morbidity and motality. Rapid assessment, resuscitation, and early endoscopy form the basis of early management of patients with severe bleeding. Risk stratification is based on clinical assessment and endoscopic findings. Early Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE) (within 24 h of presentation) confirms the diagnosis and allows for targeted endoscopic treatment, which results in reduced morbidity, hospital stay, the risk of recurrent bleeding, and need for surgery. Despite successful endoscopic therapy, re-bleeding remains a risk and a second attempt at endoscopic therapy is recommended in most. Arteriography with embolization can serve as an extremely useful therapeutic option. Thanks to excellent medical and endoscopic control, surgery for UGIB is rarely required nowadays.


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